Ignorance in Power

June 30th, 2016 by DarianWorden

I’ve been reading some great commentary on how the establishment is utterly baffled by, and derisively hostile to, the rise of populist movements that appear to reject some of its core positions. Glenn Greenwald’s commentary on the topic is particularly excellent. There are a lot of narratives about who the establishment is and who is anti-establishment that need to be examined.

“The establishment” is a handy shortcut to generalize about the status quo, the political, economic, and social authorities established within it, and people who support all this. Elites are people who have significant influence on the establishment and benefit most from it. There are also people with less influence who nevertheless identify with and strongly defend the status quo and its elites because their life is so tied to it.

The fact that bad solutions are popular does not mean there is not a problem. The fact that so many people demand some kind of different situation does not simply mean that there are a lot of ignorant people, but it could show how many people are negatively impacted by the current situation.

The fact is, everyone is ignorant to some degree. Some are more ignorant than others, and some are more willfully ignorant. I would say that many people have been trained to be ignorant to some extent. It provides little value to the establishment for the average person to be a thoughtful citizen of the world. What kind of power would one have without ignorant masses to rule over? Many people in various social situations see the success of others depending less on how much they study, and more on who they know. Will getting good grades, analyzing global news, and writing insightful commentary be more likely to lead to a stable living than impressing the right people? What if the right people to know are impressed by displays of disdain for for eggheads and experts? How many people who go to college are actually more interested in learning than in credentials and contacts? Ignorance is rampant among elites. Many do not understand how life is for most people primarily because they do not want to know.

The narrative that people reject the status quo simply because they are ignorant low-class racists does a lot of service for the establishment. It implies that the status quo must be working pretty well, because only awful people are against it. It directs people away from asking how many people are poor, desperate, and looking for scapegoats because the status quo has utterly failed to deliver on lifelong promises or even to deliver basic stability. It also hides how racist the establishment itself can be.

The Trump campaign runs on outrageous statements about putting things back the way they used to be, barely concealed hostility toward minorities who step out of their prescribed places, and overt hostility toward anyone who opposes the campaign. Supporting Trump means being at least racist enough to not care how minorities have to suffer while “we get our country back.” Donald Trump is hardly outside the establishment. He was born into wealth and has had a life of turning his wealth into greater prestige that nets him more money. He has continually benefited from a system that he mainly criticizes for not being hard enough on outsiders. Trump was still in with the New York elite during and after the time he called for all-but lynching a group of black teenagers who were accused of raping a white woman based on flimsy evidence – men who were later proven not guilty by DNA testing.

The elites who pretend to be against elitism probably believe in what they do and believe that things will be better with them in charge. What they are really doing is managing potential revolt and directing its anger against relatively powerless groups of people they are willing to write off as sacrifices. Donald Trump has for decades been in the business of talking himself up so people will support his schemes, and him running for president seems no different. A lot of people who claim to know what they are doing have caused serious harm to numerous people. Donald “Trust Me” Trump in political office would be one of them, and the harm he would do would almost certainly be immense.

A complete disregard for expertise is not rational. People who spend their lives examining particular issues are at least worth hearing. When people reject modern medicine, deny climate change, or insist on clear historical falsehoods, they are usually not really being skeptical. They may be deciding what to believe based on how they feel about the people speaking. If they feel more in common with someone who argues a certain way, that will substitute for critical examination of arguments and evidence. Cultural affinity becomes a shortcut for thinking.

To really change the status quo, to really have a smarter and more secure world, is a worthwhile goal. It can only happen if people refuse to be willfully ignorant, make a serious effort to understand what other people experience, try to have some grasp of the complex nature of human relations, and embrace what truly does lead to progress – a commitment to liberty for all individuals and a commitment to continually examining the nature of social relations. Those for whom personal power is too entangled with their view of progress, and those who simply prefer power over others, can get out of the way.

What Kind of Conversation?

June 12th, 2016 by DarianWorden

I really did not want to write about a mass shooting, but I felt like I needed to.

I hope that I can somehow help the families and survivors of the attack on the Pulse club and help them not be forgotten.

I cannot speak for the victims and survivors. I do not know what they would want to say. People who know them well might know. I can only say how it makes me feel.

I am angry that yet another disaffected man has gone on to attack innocent people. I want to talk about the cultural environment that brought this on. Is it really so different when Americans pick up a gun to kill people for their idea of glory or God, as it is when people in any country pledge allegiance to ISIS to brutalize women and attack those who believe differently? Is the desire to reclaim some wounded manhood by shocking acts of violence not part of their motive? Are they the worst kind of reactionaries, acting under more or less organization, going after people who represent threats to the social order they desire?

I find it hard to believe that people with all kinds of views on gun laws are not only sick of the tragedies, but sick of the non-debate that goes on afterward. Gun ownership is integral to my political views of individual empowerment. I am always going to pro-gun and pro-Second Amendment. I am proud to be a gun owner who has taught others about responsible use and ownership of firearms. I am also tired of the scripted non-debate that we always get into. I agree 100% that tragedies can be stopped by individual gun owners, like the Uber driver who stopped a massacre in Chicago. But the fact is, armed citizens are not always going to be around, and pro-gun folks are talking ourselves into irrelevance if this is all we have to say.

The national conversation on gun laws is not a debate. It is an opportunity for cultural posturing. At this point, there are basically two camps pointing to the other, saying nasty things, and getting cheers from the crowd we’re in. The leading national politicians are not having an honest discussion, either because they don’t trust the other side or they don’t think they will get anywhere by talking to the other side. We are just building up more anger that must eventually come back to us.

Some people advocate banning all guns, even though it is politically and practically impossible in America and there are actually very few developed countries that have done so. Some people might prefer gun control laws that are not outside the realm of reason, but then they talk as if all gun owners who disagree with them are responsible for mass murders, and then they wonder where why there aren’t more gun owners who want to talk with them. Some people pretend they want a debate, but they actually are more likely to talk about things like how a gun owner’s penis is.

For the pro-gun crowd, an attitude of no-compromise is required for full membership. The fact that full gun confiscation is a political, practical, and cultural impossibility in America is not given the weight it is due. The actual amount of firepower that is required for the people to defend themselves against government overreach, violent political movements, and violent criminals is not discussed. There is a little bit of discussion on how to best secure gun rights for the largest number of Americans for the greatest length of time, but more often there is the spectacle of a life-and-death struggle against the forces of darkness. When we are in power, they lose, and when they are in power, we lose.

Essentially, there is no trust. I find it hard to believe that most Americans would prefer to do nothing about mass murders. We can celebrate the fact that violent crime is down, that individuals in American society are relatively safe. But things can be improved. The ax of gun control will eventually fall if the political winds are shifted that way, and it will fall more heavily if nobody will talk to each other. Is there any compromise to be made that will make anyone happy?

I know there are people who want all guns to be taken from American civilians, but I think they will stay in the minority if American gun culture does not wall itself off. I am not in favor of weapons restrictions, but I would not actively oppose laws that include a balance of restrictions and guarantees on gun rights. I think it is more important that Americans have the ability to carry guns in more places across the country than for those guns to hold more than ten rounds of ammunition. I would be less opposed to gun control laws that also restricted the weapons that police could routinely carry, as that would remind them that they are supposed to be citizens like the rest of us. I will remain opposed to gun control regimes where gun ownership is an exclusive club for the rich and connected while the poor get frisked. I recognize that my goal of a more libertarian society is going to take some time and trial and correction to get to, and I am okay with compromises along the way.

I recognize that the bulk of this post talked about guns and gun laws, not the culture that violence springs from. Unfortunately, that is the discussion that I am responding to. As the profile of the shooter is detailed in the coming weeks, let’s not forget how mass society is woven with past violence, threats of violence, awe of violence, and brutalizing, humiliating, hierarchy. Oppression that is done most shockingly in mass public shootings will not be undone without serious inquiry.

The cause of mass murder spectacles is not guns. Anyone who refuses to take seriously the inquiry into the cultural ground that perpetrators spring from should not be taken seriously. Similarly, a larger store of firepower is not the greatest guarantor of the greatest liberty; that role belongs to widespread social acceptance of the principles upon which liberty rests. But guns are often the tools used in mass murders and they are tools that give teeth to individual liberties. The discussion about guns should be taken seriously as well.

Longer Walks in Winter

January 13th, 2016 by DarianWorden

Winter has arrived, and it’s time to get friendly with the season. Enduring the cold can certainly become the focus of a long winter walk, but there is much more. The contrasts abound: body heat and cold air, chill breezes and warm sunlight, white snow and dark tree trunks, soft snow and hard ice, the quiet of the forest and the crunch of snow under foot. A stand of snowy pines is a sight to enjoy, especially when the low sun shines through the branches. When the moon is bright above a wide, snowy path, the Earth shimmers before the walker. When the winter ground is exposed, the observer can see the raw edge of life awaiting its chance to burst forth in spring. Getting friendly with winter is also a remedy for cabin fever, a chance to feel the sun on your face and all the trees, rocks, and snows that are still out.

I have been outside on many winter days of around 20 to 40 degrees Fahrenheit, and I will say that all you really need to enjoy them are a few layers of clothing and the knowledge of how to get back to your warm shelter. But enjoying longer walks in winter, for example a day of hiking, requires a bit more preparation. I am going to discuss some equipment that works for me. The perfect kit for you will require some trial and error to find what makes you most comfortable. Bring extra layers out with you and leave room in your backpack.

If your winters are as wet as those in the northeastern US, you really will benefit from some waterproof boots. Stores with good selections of hiking and camping equipment are good places to find them, especially when sales are on. Boots should have a waterproof liner, be rugged and designed for movement, and might or might not have insulation depending on the user. I usually do winter hikes in leather hiking boots or backpacking boots that have waterproof lining, but are not insulated. I do have some insulated hiking boots, but they come out on days that are colder than usual for around here. In my youth I hiked through much snow in Gore-tex lined combat boots.

I wear merino wool socks in winter. I have had good results from Smartwool socks, but there are other good brands out there I haven’t tried much.

After the footwear, I would say that base layers are the next most important clothing to consider. A base layer consists of long underpants and a long sleeve shirt, and it is supposed to go against your skin in order to pull sweat away from the skin. They also provide some insulation. I usually wear polyester midweight thermals on hikes. I have had good results with EMS, REI, and Polarmax branded base layers. I also got a Smartwool baselayer pant and I find it to be very comfortable and effective. Base layers should be made of material that dries quickly, so cotton should definitely be avoided.

The item I would consider next would be the overcoat or shell jacket or whatever you call the thing that goes on your torso and keeps the water off of you. I recommend durable water repellant jackets from brands that specialize in active outdoor recreation. They should include a hood and pockets. They should be big enough to wear comfortably over layers, but not too baggy to keep the breeze out. I used to do a lot of hiking in a military field jacket with some extra sprayed-on water repellent when I was into that kind of thing.

Obviously, you should be wearing pants out there. For many trips, hiking pants or military pants that are not all cotton will do fine. Sometimes waterproof pants are good to have. It’s pretty common to fall in the snow at least once on a snowshoe trip, and you might want to slide down a nice slope or sit down without getting soaked. There are a few kinds of waterproof pants out there. You could wear the thin nylon rain pants over your other pants, but they don’t usually breathe too well. A woven water repellent material might be better. I would probably go light on the insulation here, because legs can get really warm from exertion and you can add a layer of light fleece pants or thicker thermals for colder trips.

For torso insulation, I usually like to wear a fleece or commando sweater between my base layer and my shell. They seem to balance warmth and breathability well, and they are comfortable to sweat in. For times when I won’t be getting as warm, like a leisurely walk, a slow night hike, or a careful descent, I have a puffy zip-up layer. If it’s really cold I will wear both. For leisurely walks, I might be wearing a flannel shirt. Despite what you may have read on the internet, it is possible to wear cotton in the woods and walk out alive. However, is better to go with other fabrics because cotton dries very slowly and insulates poorly.

Hats and gloves might be considered accessories, but I would consider them necessities for winter hikes. A simple knit hat will do the job, as will a fleece hat, a wool cap, or anything else that is warm but not too heavy. A knit ski mask is one of my oldest pieces of gear that I use with some regularity, usually folded up as a cap until the wind kicks up. I like to bring light water repellent gloves for ascents and heavier gloves for descents, but I often just go with whatever gloves are in my pockets. A scarf or neck gaiter might be nice to have as well. I sometimes wear sunglasses if it’s a really bright day.

Water repellent gaiters that cover the area where your boots meet your pants can do a great job of keeping snow out, provided you take a little time to buckle them properly for your size. This can make a long walk in the snow much more comfortable.

So that’s clothing. There is a lot of it, because it is serving as your shelter for a day when other people are inside a solid structure with modern heating. My list goes pretty well with the theory of three types of layers: base, insulation, and shell. I do find that for many activities, the base and shell provide a good amount of insulation.

There are other things that you or your hiking party should have. Water is essential. The air will be dry and you will be exerting yourself. Water should be carried in bottles, not hydration bladders, as a narrow hose will freeze more readily than a bottle neck. Food can make a huge difference. Water and food are the fuel that will keep you walking upright and will allow your body to generate heat. You need to fuel the fire.

Bring navigational equipment, emergency supplies, and small wilderness tools. Winter days are short and winter nights are cold, so bring a light, preferably one that you can wear on your head. They can be found at outdoor recreation stores, and sometimes home improvement stores carry cheap models. If you are exploring an area big enough to get lost in you should have a map and compass and know how to use them. Smartphones can often use their GPS function even without cell network coverage, but that won’t help you if you haven’t downloaded the maps, there are no features on the map that can guide you, your battery drains, or you have no idea where you are in the first place.

An emergency kit is a good thing to carry. It should include an emergency blanket and fire starting tools. Your party should have at least one first aid kit that includes bandages, moleskin for blisters, tweezers, antibiotic ointment, antiseptic wipes, medicines, gauze, and medical tape. It’s even better if there are people trained in first aid who can make use of a larger kit. A knife or multi-tool is a good thing to carry in the outdoors as well. I like to keep some water purification chemicals in my hiking kit too. I also carry some paracord and a miniature roll of duct tape in my kit. I don’t think I would actually lash together a shelter unless I was planning to stay a while, but paracord is something I have always carried so I’ll keep doing it. Some chemical hand warmers are a good thing to have, if only to help other hikers enjoy the day as much as you would like. All of this plus extra clothing should go in a backpack that is comfortable enough to enjoy carrying and will not fall apart on the trip. Most backpacks are not waterproof so you may want to line it with a waterproof bag or pack your gear in freezer bags.

So how do you actually walk when the forest is covered in snow and ice? There are ways. If it’s just a little snow, you can be patient and plod your way through it. If there is ice, micro-spikes will help you keep your grip. If the hill is steep and icy, consider going heavy duty and strapping on crampons. If you can’t walk without sinking into snow, it’s time to consider snowshoes. If you want to go far or get a workout, cross-country skiing is an option.

If you want to get out, be active, and get the feel of a place, you don’t need much beyond the right attitude. But if you want to go farther and have a better experience, some planning and preparation will take you a long way. Winter can be dangerous, but a person in the right mindset can be friendly with winter.

The Mapmakers: Reading a Classic

October 12th, 2015 by DarianWorden

The Mapmakers by John Noble Wilford tells the story of mapping from the earliest known maps to the turn of the twenty-first century, when the second edition of the book was published. It is recommended for readers interested in any facet of mapmaking.

Wilford draws on his vast experience as a science journalist to present a broad and technical topic in a well-written narrative. It is a thorough historic overview, but given the breadth of the subject and the objective of telling a story to popular audiences, there is not much room for detailed analysis, technical instruction, or many footnotes. Those looking for a more complete understanding of mapping will benefit from reading The Mapmakers, but they should also look at the impressive bibliography in the back of the book or consult academic textbooks or online instruction.

The Mapmakers is limited by its date of publishing, though it is not truly out of date for most purposes. This is not the source for understanding mapmaking techniques that have come into widespread use in the 15 years since the book was printed. The reader will not find the story of the amazing web maps that are almost taken for granted today, nor the lidar technology being used in such varied applications as terrain mapping, building modelling, and archeology. Importantly, however, Wilford does succeed in describing the important changes in mapmaking from the book’s first edition in 1981 to the end of the twentieth century. The transition from drafting table to computer screen and the use of electronic equipment in the field is thoroughly discussed. The book also includes chapters on GPS, geographic information systems, and the mapping of other planets, so the latest technology at the time of the book’s publishing is not neglected.

The book tells the stories of the big names in mapmaking history without neglecting many of the lesser-known and collaborative work in the field. Wilford discusses the contributions of philosophers, mathematicians, surveyors, cartographers, astronomers, tinkerers, and navigators. The sense of discovery energizes the narrative, perhaps especially the chapters about early map projections and pioneers in precision surveying. The chapter on Columbus is an excellent discussion of how the explorer convinced himself that his goal was achievable by calculating that the world was much smaller than it actually was. The later chapters of the book reveal how much of the current understanding of the planet came from technology that only became available in the twentieth century.

The Mapmakers is an excellent overview for those with an interest in mapmaking and the history of discovery, and a great starting point for those who want to gain a detailed understanding of the topic.

The Mapmakers by John Noble Wilford
Revised Edition, 2001
Vintage Books
508 pages

Hello Again!

October 5th, 2015 by DarianWorden

It has certainly been a while since I have blogged. I guess I needed a break to refresh my writing.

I expect to occasionally post on history, current events, and the outdoors.

I have stopped regular updates on Head First Adventures, but I am quite happy with the content there.

Since most of the content on this blog was pretty old, I decided to start fresh. I archived the older stuff the old fashioned way, with a lot of copy-and-paste action. I will add some of it to the archives section of the website.

I’ve got some ideas in the works and I expect the upcoming year to be fruitful.